Research on development strategy of rare earth functional material 2035
As one of the key strategic materials with the most resource characteristics in china, rare earth functional materials support a new generation of information technology, aerospace and modern weapons and equipment, advanced rail transit, energy-saving and new energy vehicles, high-performance medical devices and other core materials in the field of high technology. This paper introduces the background and development status of rare earth functional materials industry, and analyzes the existing problems in the development of rare earth functional materials industry in china, this paper puts forward the development ideas and key development direction facing the development strategy of new materials power 2035, and strengthens the strategic prediction and policy support in the field of rare earth, strengthens the basic research and application basis in the field of rare earth, policy suggestions are put forward in terms of strengthening the superior team of rare earth and talent construction to provide reference for promoting the development of rare earth functional materials and realizing china’s strategic transformation from a major rare earth country to a powerful rare earth country.
Table of Contents
- Development status of rare earth functional materials
- Difficulties and challenges in the development of rare earth functional materials
- Future development ideas, key development directions and development goals of rare earth functional materials
- Development goals
- Strengthen the strategic prediction research and policy support capabilities in the field of rare earth functional materials at the national level
- Strengthening basic research and applied basic research in the field of rare earth to promote original achievements
- Strengthen the support of the rare earth advantage team and the construction of talent gradient to improve the sustainable innovation ability of rare earth functional materials
- Strengthen international cooperation in the field of rare earth functional materials and enhance china’s global competitiveness in the field of rare earth functional materials
Rare earth elements (a general term of 15 lanthanum elements, yttrium and scandium, a total of 17 elements) have excellent magnetism, light, physical and chemical characteristics such as electricity, in new energy vehicles, new display and lighting, industrial robots, electronic information, aviation and aerospace, national defense and military, energy conservation and environmental protection, as well as high-end equipment manufacturing and other strategic emerging industries, all play an important role and are indispensable core basic materials.
New rare earth materials represented by rare earth functional materials have become one of the focuses of global competition. Developed countries and regions such as europe and the united states and japan have included rare earth elements in the “strategic elements in the 21st century” for strategic reserve and key research. “Key materials strategy” formulated by U.S. Department of Energy, “element strategy plan” formulated by Japanese Ministry of Education and Science “, the EU’s” EU critical raw material plan “has listed rare earth elements as key research areas. In particular, in recent years, the united states has restarted the rare earth industry to obtain rare earth magnets that can be used for military purposes. It can be said that rare earth permanent magnet materials have become “Shangganling” in the field of rare earth functional materials “.
Because of this, china has listed rare earth as a strategic resource for national key control and development, and has listed rare earth functional materials as key strategic materials in the national medium and long-term development plans such as made in china 2025. “Several opinions of the state council on promoting the sustainable and healthy development of the rare earth industry” and other relevant regulations have also helped to promote scientific and technological innovation in the field of rare earth functional materials, optimizing the structure of rare earth industry has promoted the development level and quality of rare earth functional materials in China.
Development status of rare earth functional materials
Rare earth is an important strategic resource and advantageous field for China to have an international say. China is a large country in the world’s rare earth resources reserves. According to the detection of global rare earth resources total reserves is about 1.2 × 108t, of which china’s reserves reached 4.4 × 107t, accounting for about 37.8%, is the world’s largest producer of rare earth resources. In 2019, the global output of rare earth ore is 2.1 × 105t, among which, china’s output of rare earth ore reached 1.32 × 105t, accounting for about 63% of the global output of rare earth ore. Meanwhile, china is a rare earth industrialization country with a complete and independent industrial system, covering all the industrial chains from the upstream mineral processing, smelting separation, oxide and rare earth metal production in the midstream, and downstream rare earth new materials and applications. In 2018, the output value of china’s rare earth industry chain was about 90 billion yuan, of which the rare earth functional materials accounted for 56%, the output value was about 50 billion yuan, the smelting separation accounted for 27%, and the output value was about 25 billion yuan. Among them, rare earth permanent magnet materials account for the highest proportion of rare earth functional materials, accounting for 75%, with an output value of about 37.5 billion yuan, catalytic materials accounting for 20%, and an output value of about 10 billion yuan. In terms of rare earth functional materials in China’s rare earth consumption structure, rare earth permanent magnet materials benefit from the rapid development of new energy automobiles and electronics industry, and account for more than 40% in the consumption structure. Metallurgy and machinery, the proportions of the petrochemical industry and glass-ceramic are respectively 12%, 9% and 8%, with hydrogen storage materials and luminescent materials accounting for 7% respectively; Catalytic materials, polishing materials and agricultural textile account for 5% respectively.
The field of rare earth smelting and separation
In 1988, china’s rare earth production exceeded that of the united states and became the world’s first rare earth producer. China’s rare earth smelting and separation level is leading the world and continues to this day, controlling the global market of high purity single rare earth. At present, china’s rare earth smelting and separation enterprises mainly focus on china’s six major rare earth groups: Northern rare earth high-tech co., ltd. (group), China southern rare earth group co., ltd, Guangdong Rare Earth Industry Group Co., Ltd., China rare earth Co., Ltd., Minmetals Rare Earth Group Co., Ltd., Xiamen Tungsten Co., Ltd. Foreign rare earth smelting and separation projects mainly include the MountainPass project of American Molybdenum Company (purchased by Shenghe Resources Holding Co., Ltd.), the smelting and separation project of Australian Lynas in Guandan, Malaysia, and the Solvay Group of Belgium. Projects, etc.
Rare earth permanent magnet material is not only the fastest growing and the most complete development direction of the whole rare earth field, but also an irreplaceable and indispensable key raw material in the field of national defense industry, it is also the largest application field of rare earth consumption. Since 2000, the scale of china’s rare earth permanent magnet material application industry has been expanding. The production of sintered NdFeB magnets blank increased from 8 × 104t in the early “twelfth five-year” to 1.8 × 105t in 2019, the increase is more than 1 times, accounting for more than 85% of the global output; The output of samurite permanent magnet material is 2400T, accounting for more than 80% of the global output.
Sintered NdFeb magnets have developed widely in new and high-tech industries such as new energy vehicles such as wind power generation, hybrid power and electric vehicles, energy-saving household appliances, industrial robots, high-speed and magnetic suspension trains, etc, it provides an important support for the development of rare earth permanent magnet material industry and has considerable industry growth potential. China is close to the world’s advanced level in the fields of high-performance rare earth permanent magnet materials, heavy rare earth reduction technology, balanced utilization of high-abundance rare earth permanent magnet materials and magnet recycling technology.
Although china has become the world’s largest producer of rare earth permanent magnet materials, and part of the rare earth permanent magnet preparation technologies represented by high abundance rare earth permanent magnet materials have taken the world’s leading position, China’s rare earth permanent magnet material products, at present, it can not meet the technology demands for high-end permanent magnets of the emerging industries such as high-end robots, the fifth generation mobile communication technology (5g), optical engraving machine and so on. At the same time, in the fields of core intellectual property rights, hot pressing \thermal deformation, grain refinement and other most advanced preparation technologies and continuous intelligent equipment of the whole rare earth permanent magnet materials, it is still the same as the united states, there is a big gap in developed countries such as Japan.
Difficulties and challenges in the development of rare earth functional materials
Based on the above research status of rare earth functional materials, it can be found that rare earth resources, as non-renewable global scarce strategic resources, have always been one of the focuses of global attention. Since the Sino-US trade friction, rare earth and rare earth permanent magnet materials have become “key words” frequently mentioned by domestic and foreign media “, the reason is that the leading position of china’s rare earth and rare earth permanent magnet material industry chain and the development speed of rare earth permanent magnet material science and technology make the united states feel worried. Although china’s rare earth resources, rare earth mining, dressing and other technologies are in the international leading position and have a series of original technologies, there are still many difficulties and challenges in the development of the whole rare earth functional materials.
The external challenges of rare earth functional materials mainly come from the “national system + global camp” of the united states trying to get rid of the dependence on china’s rare earth permanent magnet products by the way of “fully decoupling, at the same time, it incites other countries to give up the application of china’s rare earth permanent magnet materials to contain and contain the rapid development of china’s rare earth science and technology and application industries. On the other hand, in the middle and lower reaches application fields of rare earth functional materials, most of our country’s research and development is in the state of following foreign advanced technology mode. Although the number of patent applications in the field of rare earth materials in china has increased rapidly in recent years, the majority of patents that belong to improved patents or marginal patents and have core proprietary intellectual property rights, especially original international patents, are still not much, many core technologies are restricted by foreign patented technical barriers, which have seriously affected the pace of high-quality development and internationalization of rare earth industry.
The internal challenges of the functional materials of rare earth mainly come from the outstanding problems of the base plate of the rare earth industry, and insufficient attention has been paid to the “long-forging plate”; Enterprises and scientific research institutions are more inclined to support the short-term effective research and imitation technology, the supporting power for the original technology which is of great difficulty in development, high cost of development and long cycle of technical breakthrough is insufficient; The multi-disciplinary and cross-industry joint research and development ability in the field of rare earth functional materials needs to be strengthened. In the final analysis, it is because of the lack of original innovation ability and the weak control ability of the core technology of rare earth functional materials.
Therefore, focusing on the development of rare earth functional materials in 2035, more attention should be paid to the construction of independent innovation capability of rare earth functional materials from the perspective of globalization, including the control of core technologies, the study and integration with international advanced technologies, as well as sticking to the advantages of the rare earth function industry and expanding and strengthening it.
Future development ideas, key development directions and development goals of rare earth functional materials
Closely combined with the national strategy, combined with the application scenarios such as intelligent robots, smart cities, marine and interstellar development, big data society and man-machine docking, the key technology research of engineering and industrialization will be carried out, and efforts will be made to break through rare earth permanent magnet materials, core preparation technology, intelligent production equipment, special detection instrument and Application Technology of Advanced rare earth functional materials such as rare earth luminescent materials, rare earth catalytic materials, rare earth crystal materials, high purity rare earth metals and target materials; through the synchronous innovation of the whole industry chain, promoting the popularization and implementation of the advanced achievements and ensuring the effective supply of the key materials for the major strategic demands such as the strategic emerging industries, the defense military industry and the intelligent manufacturing, finally realize the independent supply of high-end rare earth functional materials; Carry out frontier basic theory and experimental research, through in-depth exploration and accumulation of scientific issues, put forward more original theories and make original findings, obtain a batch of original achievements of new materials and applications of rare earth; Realize the strategic transformation of our country from a big country of rare earth to a powerful country of rare earth, and lead the development of science and technology and industry of rare earth in the future, to provide material support for the realization of China’s strategic goal of “becoming the forefront of an innovative country by 2020.
Key development direction
Preparation of ultra-high performance rare earth permanent magnet materials and key technologies for Efficient balanced utilization of rare earth
Aiming at the expectation of future intelligent society for permanent magnetic materials with higher magnetic properties and the requirement of new technology equipment for functional diversity of permanent magnetic materials, combining the historical laws of knowledge renewal and technological change, as well as the current understanding of the development of key technologies such as grain refinement and grain boundary optimization of high-performance rare earth permanent magnet materials, and the content of key development is drawn up.
- (1) In the aspect of permanent magnet NdFeB materials, focus on the research of the preparation technology of sintered ndfeb with high comprehensive performance, the research of the diffusion mechanism of heavy rare earth in the sintered NdFeB magnets, the research of recovery technology and application of sintered ndfeb, prediction Technology and theoretical research on service performance of sintered NdFeB magnets, etc.
- (2) In the aspect of samurite-cobalt permanent magnet material, the element control mechanism research of high remanence samurite-cobalt magnet should be focused, and the control research of nanometer structure and micro-region composition in the high performance samurite-cobalt permanent magnet engineering preparation should, research on oxidation technology of samarium-cobalt with high use temperature research on high temperature samarium-cobalt permanent magnet surface protection technology, etc.
- (3) In terms of hot pressing permanent magnetic materials, the focus should be put on the study of the mechanism of the anisotropic formation of the thin-walled hot pressing magnetic rings, the study of the high-performance hot pressing magnetic powder preparation technology for hot pressing magnetic rings, and the study of the high, high-performance hot-pressed magnetic ring engineering preparation equipment and process technology development, etc.
- (4) In the aspect of high-abundance permanent magnetic materials, focus on the balanced utilization of rare earth with high-abundance (La, Ce, etc.) in permanent magnetic materials, double principal phase cerium magnet structure and coercive force mechanism and coercive force enhancement technology research, etc.
- (5) Combined with material genes, machine learning and other methods, carry out research on universal analytical methods and software such as structural design and performance calculation of magnetic functional materials aiming at the key performance indexes of the first generation of rare earth permanent magnet materials with high magnetic energy and high coercive force, carry out the exploration of new systems and structures of materials.
- (6) Study, test and test new principles and new equipments according to the characteristics of magnetic functional materials, so as to gradually get rid of the dependence of analysis and test equipments on foreign countries.
New rare earth permanent magnet materials and key technologies for customization application
With the general trend of low-carbon economy sweeping the world, all countries in the world pay attention to environmental protection and low-carbon emission as key scientific and technological fields. Key development contents include developing intelligent rail transit and intelligent industrial manufacturing system; Developing permanent magnet suspension bearing technology, permanent magnet eddy current drive technology, the development of energy-saving and efficient permanent magnet materials and magnetic power systems, such as permanent magnet eddy current braking technology, highly corrosion resistant permanent magnet permanent magnet materials for permanent magnet direct drive generators and wind power system development robots and intelligent cities high magnetic energy product, permanent magnetic materials with high tenacity, miniaturization and high precision.
2025 target: complete the transition of the rare earth industry from running to running
By 2020, he will enter the ranks of powerful countries in the field of rare earth functional materials. Facing the major development requirements in the fields of new generation of information technology, modern transportation, new generation of lighting and display, energy conservation and environmental protection, integrated circuit, biomedicine, national defense and military industry, etc, initially grasp the key core technologies of rare earth magnetic materials with independent intellectual property rights and their manufacturing equipment, and the application fields of high-end magnetic materials such as new energy vehicles, aerospace and industrial servo motors and so on, rare earth permanent magnet material replacement compliance rate reached 70%. Break through the batch and stable preparation technology of rare earth luminescent materials, increase the localization rate to more than 80%; Break through the key preparation technologies of new rare earth functional materials such as high-performance rare earth crystal materials, high purity rare earth metals and target materials, etc, to meet the requirements of high-end medical equipment, intelligent detection, integrated circuits, etc., to partly replace imports to develop new rare earth functional materials and their preparation technologies, and to expand new application fields. By 2020, we will have mastered a batch of key core technologies of key rare earth new materials, and formed a batch of multinational corporations and industrial clusters with strong international competitiveness in the dominant fields, which will significantly enhance our position in the global industrial value chain, complete the transition from the rare earth industry to running together.
Target for 2020: initially build a world rare earth power
By 2030, the innovation ability in the field of rare earth functional materials will have been greatly improved, and the goal of leading the research and industrial development of global rare earth permanent magnet materials will be achieved. Ultra-high-performance permanent magnets have been fully applied in robots, medical equipment, aerospace, Internet of Things, ships, petrochemical and other major equipment and projects, master the key core technologies of rare earth magnetic materials and their manufacturing equipment with independent intellectual property rights, and in the application fields of high-end magnetic materials such as new energy vehicles, aerospace and industrial servo motors, rare earth permanent magnet material replacement compliance rate reached 80%.
2035 year goal: to build a world rare earth power
By 2035, great breakthroughs will be made in the field of rare earth functional materials, and the innovation ability will be greatly improved. The overall innovation level in the field of new rare earth materials will reach the ranks of high-level countries in the world, and the overall competitiveness will be obviously strengthened, some of the dominant directions have formed a global innovation leading ability and have been fully built into a world power in rare earth functional materials. Rare earth permanent magnet materials, catalytic materials, luminescent materials reach the international advanced level to achieve complete self-sufficiency. The self-sufficiency rate of optical functional crystals and ultra-pure rare earth used in national defense is more than 95%; realize the autonomous control of key core technology and intellectual property of rare earth magnetic material and its manufacturing equipment, in the field of high-end magnetic material such as new energy vehicle, national defense and military industry, aerospace, intelligent manufacturing, health care and marine engineering, the renewal compliance rate of rare earth permanent magnet materials reaches 85%, forming a batch of original rare earth functional materials and realizing their application, among which the original intellectual property rights of the new generation of rare earth permanent magnet materials are controlled by china. The proportion of over 30% of international standards is made by china’s independent formulation. China has the power of discourse in the formulation of high-end material standards; cultivate innovation talents and innovation teams for rare earth functional materials realize the new development mode of driving new application by rare earth functional materials, establish the global leading technology innovation system and industrial system, and provide platform for original technology.
Facing the 2035 development strategy of rare earth functional materials, accelerate the construction of a new development pattern of scientific and technological innovation for rare earth functional materials, optimize scientific and technological resources and human resources in the dominant regions of rare earth, and consolidate the “long board” advantage in the rare earth field. Efforts should be made to improve the original innovation capability, scale engineering and achievement transformation capability, promote the green manufacturing of rare earth functional materials, and vigorously develop high-performance rare earth magnet with independent intellectual property rights, light, electricity and other new functional materials and application technologies, establish an “industry-university-research” innovation platform for china’s advanced rare earth materials, and build a low-carbon economic industrial chain for rare earth materials and their application, form a high-performance rare earth material strategic industry with china’s own intellectual property rights, and gradually realize that china will move from a major producer of rare earth to a powerful rare earth country. Specific policy measures are recommended as follows:
Strengthen the strategic prediction research and policy support capabilities in the field of rare earth functional materials at the national level
- 1. Accelerate the establishment of an intellectual property system, technical system, talent system, and platform system for national-level integrated rare earth functional materials.
- 2. Strengthen the continuity and continuity of the long-term planning and implementation in the field of national rare earth functional materials to form long-term stable national support to avoid intermittent support.
- 3. Strengthen the awareness of intellectual property protection in the field of rare earth functional materials, improve the relevant legal system and its implementation mechanism of intellectual property protection, and strengthen and implement the incentive measures for the innovation activities of job inventors, stimulate the internal vitality of rare earth functional materials and their industries and the emergence of innovative technologies.
Strengthening basic research and applied basic research in the field of rare earth to promote original achievements
- 1. Start major special projects or key projects of new materials of rare earth, make the layout of new materials of rare earth prospectively, strengthen the research layout of application technology basis in new fields, strengthen the research and development of new generation of functional materials of rare earth, layout and strengthen the research and development of new material preparation new technology and new equipment with rare earth function, enabling the new national infrastructure, the rare earth functional materials applied in major projects can continuously continue and adapt to the application requirements of the national 2035 development strategy.
- 2. Take the advantages of the rare earth resources in ganzhou and baotou, the new materials high-tech industrial cluster advantages in ningbo, shandong, beijing, tianjin, hebei and other regions, the science and technology resources of beijing and the talent advantages of universities and research institutes, the downstream application industrial advantages of new rare earth materials such as shanghai, guangzhou, shenzhen, etc., set up a national science and technology innovation center for new rare earth materials in beijing as soon as possible to form a separation from smelting, material processing to the downstream application and scientific and technological innovation of the rare earth new material industry chain cluster and big data center, at the same time try to layout the overseas rare earth new material science and technology research branch to avoid the scientific and technological blockade, to strengthen the global cooperation research and development capabilities.
- 3. Strengthen the basic research and development of personalized industrialization of rare earth functional materials, and guarantee the “availability” of various major projects according to the principle of quality priority. Continue to support the development of new special permanent magnet materials for national defense equipment, strengthen the iterative application of rare earth permanent magnet materials such as large and wide industrial motors.
Strengthen the support of the rare earth advantage team and the construction of talent gradient to improve the sustainable innovation ability of rare earth functional materials
- 1. A long-term and stable support for research institutions and superior teams in the field of rare earth will be established as soon as possible to establish a scientific and technological innovation platform for national rare earth functional materials at different levels.
- 2. Give full play to the role of old, middle-aged and young experts in the construction of talent echelon to avoid talent gaps and waste of talent resources.
- 3. Focus on training young backbone and full-time technical personnel in the field of rare earth functional materials. For excellent technical talents, the threshold of assessment policy can be appropriately relaxed. As long as they make contributions, they will have the opportunity to realize their personal value, thus promoting the spontaneous emergence of leading talents in scientific research and innovative activities.
Strengthen international cooperation in the field of rare earth functional materials and enhance china’s global competitiveness in the field of rare earth functional materials
- 1. In the current international environment, we should make use of various opportunities as much as possible and adopt various channels to carry out international personnel exchange and rare earth science and technology information exchange. The management department should strive to provide convenient conditions for international science and technology exchanges, relax the limited number of times for scientific researchers to participate in academic meetings and technical exchanges abroad to avoid the interests of local and departmental disputes, resulting in scientific research and development of scientific researchers falling into a situation of “closed doors” and self-blocking.
- 2. According to the current situation at home and abroad, while strengthening the internal circulation in the field of domestic rare earth functional materials, efforts should be made to expand new international markets and expand international and external circulation. On the one hand, strengthen the level of opening to the outside world, retain and create conditions to introduce high-end application enterprises of new rare earth materials, take the initiative to form and establish a new pattern of global rare earth materials industry and rare earth technology fate community; On the other hand, appropriately relax the import of rare earth raw materials to reduce the pressure on domestic environmental protection and resource consumption; At the same time, encourage china’s rare earth enterprises to go out and purchase, become shareholders and create robot-like servo motors, electric vehicles drive superior enterprises of the high-tech application products with new materials of rare earth, such as motors, etc., improve the domestic and foreign business and science and technology development environment, in order to enhance the global competitiveness of china’s rare earth functional materials industry chain and supply chain.
Authors: zhu minggang, sun xu, liu ronghui, and xu huibing (research on development strategy of rare earth functional materials 2035). China engineering science, 2020,22(05):37-43.)
Source: China Permanent Magnet Manufacturer – www.ymagnet.com
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