What are hall components?

What is a hall component?

Hall component is a kind of magnetic sensor based on Hall effect, which can detect the magnetic field and its change, and can be used in various magnetic field related occasions. Hall element has many advantages, such as firm structure, small volume, light weight, long service life, convenient installation, low power consumption, high frequency (up to 1MHz), vibration resistance, and no fear of dust, oil, water vapor and salt spray pollution or corrosion.
Hall element is widely used, such as signal sensor in automobile distributor, speed sensor in ABS system, automobile speedometer and odometer, liquid physical quantity detector, current detection and working state diagnosis of various electrical loads, engine speed and crankshaft angle sensor, various switches, etc.
20201225223540 17591 - What are hall components?

(common hall element, picture from Internet)

Hall effect (The working principle of the Hall element)

To understand the working principle of Hall element, let’s start with learning Hall effect.
Hall effect is a kind of electromagnetic effect, which was discovered by American physicist hall in 1879 when he studied the conductive mechanism of metal. When the current passes through the semiconductor perpendicular to the external magnetic field, the carrier will deflect, and an additional electric field will be generated perpendicular to the direction of the current and magnetic field, thus creating a potential difference at both ends of the semiconductor. This phenomenon is called Hall effect, which is also called Hall potential difference.

Fabrication Materials of Hall Elements

Hall elements can be made of a variety of semiconductor materials, such as GE, Si, InSb, GaAs, InAs, InAsP and multilayer semiconductor heterostructure quantum well materials.
In semiconductor, the electron mobility (average velocity of electron directional motion) is higher than that of hole mobility, so n-type semiconductor is more suitable for manufacturing Hall elements with high sensitivity.
The commonly used semiconductor materials are n-type silicon, n-type germanium, InSb, InSAS and in type solid solutions composed of different proportions of indium arsenite and Indium Phosphate.
Among them, n-type germanium is easy to process, and its hall constant, temperature performance and output linearity are good, so it is widely used. Because the hall constant of InSb is large at high temperature, its output is large, but it is most sensitive to temperature, especially in the low temperature range, the temperature coefficient is large; the hall constant of InSb is small, the temperature coefficient is small, and the output linearity is good; the temperature characteristics and output linearity of GaAs are also good Good linearity, ideal material, but expensive. Different materials are suitable for different occasions, InSb is suitable for sensitive elements, and germanium and indium arsenide Hall elements are suitable for measuring and indicating instruments.

Component classification of Hall element

According to the function of Hall elements, they can be divided into: Hall linear devices and Hall switching devices. The former outputs analog quantity, while the latter outputs digital quantity.
According to the properties of the detected objects, their applications can be divided into direct application and indirect application. The former is to directly detect the magnetic field or magnetic characteristics of the object to be detected, while the latter is to detect the artificially set magnetic field on the object to be detected, and use this magnetic field as the carrier of the detected information, through which many non electric and non-magnetic physical quantities, such as force, torque, pressure, stress, position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, angle, angular velocity, revolution, rotational speed and working speed, can be detected The time when the state changes, etc., is converted into electricity for detection and control.

Hall switch device

According to the induction mode of Hall switch, they can be divided into unipolar Hall switch, bipolar Hall switch and full polar hall switch.
The induction mode of unipolar Hall switch: a magnetic pole of the magnetic field is close to it and outputs a low potential voltage (low level) or off signal, while the magnetic pole of the magnetic field is away from it and outputs a high potential voltage (high level) or on signal. However, it should be noted that the unipolar Hall switch can only be effective when it specifies a magnetic pole induction, generally the S pole of the magnetic field is induced positively and the N pole is induced negatively.
Induction mode of bipolar Hall switch: because the magnetic field has two magnetic poles N and S (positive or negative), the two magnetic poles respectively control the opening and closing of bipolar Hall switch (high and low level). It generally has the function of locking, that is, when the magnetic pole leaves, the hall output signal does not change until the other magnetic pole induces. In addition, the initial state of bipolar Hall switch is random output, which may be high level or low level.
Induction mode of full polar hall switch: the induction mode of full polar hall switch is similar to that of unipolar Hall switch. The difference is that the unipolar Hall switch will specify the magnetic pole, while the full polar hall switch will not specify the magnetic pole. Any magnetic pole is close to the output low-level signal and away from the output high-level signal.

Hall linear device

Linear Hall element is a kind of magnetic sensor with analog signal output. The output voltage changes linearly with the input magnetic density.

20201225224027 24595 - What are hall components?
The voltage output of linear Hall effect sensor IC can accurately track the change of magnetic flux density. In static state (without magnetic field), theoretically, the output should be equal to half of the supply voltage in the range of working voltage and working temperature. Increasing the south pole magnetic field will increase the voltage from its static voltage. On the contrary, increasing the north pole magnetic field will increase the voltage from its static voltage. These components measure the angle, proximity, motion and flux of the current. They can reflect mechanical events in a magnetically driven way.

Common models

Unipolar Hall switch circuit
Model
Working voltage VDD (V)
Working current IDD (MA)
Working point BOP (GS)
Release point BRP (GS)
Working temperature Ta (℃)
encapsulation
form
Typical applications
HAL202
4-20
2.5
180
60
-40-85
TO-92S
Position detection and speed detection
HAL3134
4.5-24
10
110
20
-40-150
TO-92S
Stage lighting, speed meter, air conditioner motor, etc
HAL3144E
3.8-30
4
250
230
-40-85
TO-92S
Stage lighting, speed meter, air conditioner motor, etc
HAL44E
3.5-24
5
80-160
30-110
-40-125
SOT-23
Motor, contactless switch
HAL131
3.8-30
3.2
45
40
-40-125
TO-92S
Hall proximity switch sensor, speed detection
HAL43A
3.8-30
3.2
180
50
-40-150
TO-92S
Speed and RPM sensors, tachometers, etc
HAL43F
3.8-30
4
200
170
-40-150
TO-92S
Speed and RPM sensors, tachometers, etc
HAL58
3.5-24
2.5
180
137
-40-150
SOT-23
Motor, contactless switch
HAL543
3.5-24
5
160
110
-40-150
SOT-89B
Contactless switch, position detection, tachometer
AH3144E
4.5-24
10
110
20
-40-85
TO-92S
Stage lighting, speed meter, air conditioner motor, etc
AH3144L
4.5-24
10
110
20
-40-150
TO-92S
Stage lighting, speed meter, air conditioner motor, etc
AH543
4.5-24
10
200
30
-40-150
SOT-89
Contactless switch, position detection, tachometer
A1101E
3.8-24
7.5
30—175
10—145
-40—85
TO-92
Contactless switch, position detection, tachometer
A1104E
3.8-24
7.5
205—355
150—300
-40—85
TO-92
Contactless switch
EW-450
4.5-18
8
200
50
-20-115
SOT-23
Application of single pole switch
EW-550
4.5-18
8
200
50
-20-115
TO-92
Motor applications
Bipolar latch Hall circuit
model
Working voltage VDD (V)
Working current IDD (MA)
Working point BOP (GS)
Release point BRP (GS)
Working temperature Ta (℃)
Packaging form
Typical applications
HAL41F
3.8-30
4
120
120
-40-150
TO-92S
Brushless DC motor, speed detection
EW-512
4.5-18
8
60
-60
-30-115
TO-92
Water flow meter, water heater, brushless motor
EW-732
2.2-18
8
60
-60
-30-115
TO-92
Water flow meter, water heater, brushless motor
U18
3.5-24
5
95
-95
-40-125
TO-92
Water flow meter, car odometer, brushless motor
SS40AF
4.5-24
10
110
-45
-40-150
TO-92
Brushless DC motor, speed detection
HAL732
2.5-24
2.5
18
-18
-40-150
SOT-23
High sensitivity contactless switch, brushless motor
HAL1881
2.4-24
2.5
30
-30
-40-150
SOT-23
High sensitivity contactless switch, brushless motor
HAL513
3.5-30
4
70
-70
-40-150
SOT-89
High sensitivity contactless switch, brushless motor
AH512
4.5-24
10
60
-60
-40-125
TO-92
High sensitivity contactless switch, brushless motor
Low power full polarity Hall switch circuit
model
Working voltage VDD (V)
Working current IDD (MA)
Working point BOP (GS)
Release point BRP (GS)
Working temperature Ta (℃)
Packaging form
Typical applications
A3212
2.5-3.5
1
1-55
10-1
-40—85
SOT-23
TO-92
Low power digital products such as mobile phones
YS4913
2.4- 5.5
-1-4.5
50
42
-45—150
SOT-23
TO-92
Mobile phone
Notebook computer
Portable electronic equipment, etc
YS9248
2.5-5.5
6
55
20
-40—85
SOT-23
TO-92
Mobile phone
Notebook computer
Portable electronic equipment, etc
HAL13S
2.4-5.5
0.009
55
25
-40-85
SOT-23
Low power digital products such as mobile phones
HAL148
2.4-5.5
0.005
45
32
-40-125
TO-92S
Low power digital products such as flashlight
HAL148L
1.8-3.5
0.005
45
32
-40-125
SOT-23
Toys
Linear Hall
Model
Working voltage VDD (V)
Magnetic field range GS
Output voltage VOT (V)
Sensitivity s MV / g
Working temperature Ta (℃)
Packaging form
Typical applications
HW302B
0.5-2
+/-500
Small 122 big 204
3.2-5.9 at 1V
-40-110
DIP-4
current sensor
HW302C
10
+/-750
Small 55 big 75
1.3 at 6V
-40-125
DIP-4
Current sensor, magnetic field detection
HAL95A
4.5-10.5
+/-670
0.5-4.5
3.35
-40-150
TO-92S
Angle detection, such as: Car throttle
HAL49E
3.0-6.5
+/-100
0.8-4.25
1.4
-40-100
TO-92S
Angle measurement, such as: electric car handle
Source: China Permanent Magnet Manufacturer – www.ymagnet.com
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